The Chlamydia is an infectious disease which isvery common among young adults. The main casue of Chlamydia is the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium which is generally transmitted through unprotected vaginal, anal and oral sex. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy is also possible.
The main problem of chlamydia is that it produces quite vague and nuanced manifestations. The symptoms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection are not always recognizable by those who are affected or are confused by other disorders.
As mentioned about in most cases the infection affects women, especially adolescents and sexually active young women. The disease is almost always asymptomatic or it can give modest symptoms ranging from vaginal irritation to burning and irritation during urination. In addition to this the affected people may have feeling of weight and tenderness at the pelvic level and vaginal blood loss. If the infection progresses the tubes and ovaries may be affected with the formation of inflammatory processes against them and the aggravation of symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, nausea.
Because of very low chances of symptoms this disease is very often known as the silent disease. Just think of Chlamydia is one of the most widespread sexually transmitted diseases in the world, along with Gonorrhea and Syphilis. For this reason when transient but abnormal symptoms occur, it should be reported immediately to the appropriate physician for appropriate examinations.
Details about what is chlamydia?
Chlamydia is a bacterial infection caused by a microorganism, Clamydia trachomatis. Among the sexually transmitted infections it is among the most widespread. It is more common in women but it affects men and women indifferently peaking at around twenty or at the beginning of active sexual life. The bacterium is transmitted in fact mainly through unprotected sexual intercourse, vaginal, anal and oral, and even during pregnancy from the mother to the fetus .
Transmission of Chlamydia
Chlamydia is generally transmitted through sexual relations of all kinds like vaginal, anal and oral.
An infected pregnant woman may pass the infection to the newborn during childbirth, which is manifested as inflammation of the eyes and the respiratory system. Chlamydia is in fact one of the first causes of conjunctivitis and pneumonia in newborns.
What are the Symptoms of Chlamydia?
Three quarters of women and a quarter of infected men have no symptoms.
Symptoms in Man: urinary burns, leakage of fluid from the tip of the penis, redness of the glans, pain and swelling of the testicles.
Symptoms in Woman: vaginal discharge, intermenstrual bleeding or after making love, lower abdominal pains, pains during sexual intercourse, urinary disorders.
Symptoms in both: Liquid loss or bleeding from the anus in case of anal infection.
Complications due to Chlamydia?
In women it can cause permanent damage to the reproductive system. An untreated infection can spread to the uterus and fallopian tubes causing an inflammatory pelvic disease with consequent lower abdominal pain, infertility, possible extrauterine pregnancies.
In men the consequences are more rare, sometimes the infection can reach the testicles causing inflammation with pain, fever and, more rarely, infertility. The role of chlamydia as a cause of prostatitis is still controversial but certainly a link exists.
Risk of Chlamydia in Newborns?
The risks derived from chlamydial infection in pregnant women mainly concern the possibility that the newborn will contract her from the mother at the time of birth, with potential health risks:
The earliest clinical manifestation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection is conjunctivitis which is present in about 50-70% of infected newborns and usually occurs between the 5th and 14th day of life.
It occurs in 10-30% cases of Chlamydia infected infants and is one of the most common forms of pneumonia in the first 6 months of a child’s life.
How Chlamydia is diagnosed?
If you suspect a chlamydial infection you should contact a doctor as soon as possible, even when the symptoms are not present.
Chlamydia trachomatis infection is traditionally diagnosed through culture tests that is by making the bacteria present in a sample of infected secretions replicate in the laboratory.
Moreover to accelerate the diagnosis and the consequent treatment some tests are now available that allow to obtain results in a very short time. An example is the search for DNA specific for chlamydia using nucleic acid amplification techniques.
Finally a blood test allows to verify a previous infection searching for the presence of anti-chlamydial bacteria.
What are Prevention of Chlamydia
Given the possible consequences of this silent infection a preventive practice is recommended with annual screening for all sexually active women under the age of 25 or for women of all ages who frequently change sexual partners and for all pregnant women.
According to the American research and the British public health service numerous studies correlate the practice of screening with the reduction of the probability of PID with a measurable benefit also in terms of decreasing ectopic pregnancies. According to British data although it is difficult to get adequate involvement in screening the male population the number of young males taking the test is increasing.
What is Treatment of Chlamydia
Given the bacterial nature of the infection chlamydia is treatable with antibiotics. The recommended therapeutic schemes involve the oral use of azithromycin or a tetracycline. In pregnancy, amoxicillin or erythromycin or clindamycin are indicated. Sexual partners must also be treated..
So in short Chlamydia is treated with an antibiotic therapy. If it is diagnosed during pregnancy, the woman can be given specific medications by the doctor while the sexual partners of the infected person must undergo treatment.